What are the signs of diabetes?
Quite often, the first signs of diabetes are not thirst and weight loss, as most people are accustomed to, and other manifestations — hair loss, brittle nails, obesity, and general breakdown — manifestations attributed to age and stress.
When does a disease start with thirst and weight loss?
When diabetes symptoms such as frequent urination, thirst and weight loss are mentioned, then it is usually about type 1 diabetes to which children, adolescents, boys and young people are more susceptible. In general, there are several types of diabetes, but types 1 and 2 are most important.
Type 1 diabetes is associated with the rapid loss of pancreatic cells responsible for insulin production. This most often happens when the pancreas is damaged by viruses (rubella, measles, mumps, etc.), its own antibodies (during autoimmune processes) or under the influence of other factors.
Pancreatic cells die almost simultaneously, insulin deficiency develops quickly, the symptoms increase in a few weeks or even days.
Insulin is the key that opens the cell and lets glucose in. If there is no insulin, the glucose that comes from the food into the bloodstream circulates through the body, but it cannot penetrate into the tissues. Its amount in the blood is growing. When it reaches a certain threshold level - it goes through the kidneys into the urine.
It turns out to be a paradoxical situation - there is a lot of nutrient in the body, its excess is released, and the body is starving. Organs and tissues are forced to use their own resources to survive. The symptoms of diabetes in this case are related to the fact that the right protein is being spent, fats (if there is a supply of them) - the person loses weight. In the blood there are substances formed during the incomplete decomposition of proteins and fats, they cause intoxication.
What precedes the disease in adults?
The second type of diabetes can occur in a similar way, but only at its last stage, when the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. The early signs of diabetes in men and women are completely different.In the initial stages, insulin is enough, sometimes there is too much of it, but it cannot open a cell for glucose, because there are too few insulin receptors on it.
By analogy with the lock - there is a key, but there is no keyhole, glucose does not enter the cell - this is called insulin resistance (insulin insensitivity), at first the pancreas produces an excess of insulin to overcome it, hyperinsulinism develops.
It should be noted that at the stage of prediabetes, the fasting glucose level (the most commonly used analysis) may be normal or at the upper limit of normal. The study of glucose with carbohydrate load also shows normal values, moreover, in the second sample the level of glucose can be reduced. This reflects an excess of insulin in the blood.
Excess insulin also harms, it leads to obesity, accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, can provoke polycystic ovary in women after 30 years. Polycystic ovary is one of the causes of infertility. Under the influence of excess insulin, the process of the release of an egg from the follicle can be disrupted. If a girl cannot become pregnant, polycystic disease must be excluded, among other reasons.
Excess insulin can be confirmed by laboratory research, it indicates a high risk that type 2 diabetes will develop. In this situation, prevention is very important - changing lifestyle, eating habits.
Of the drugs at this stage, Metformin drugs are prescribed, it helps to overcome insulin resistance and reduce the rate of atherosclerosis. You can use folk remedies - bean valves, grass goatling grass, stevia, Jerusalem artichoke, as well as special herbal preparations.
Signs of a beginning disease
With the progression of the disease, the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin decreases, the relative insulin deficiency develops - there is a hormone, but it is not enough for the needs of the body.The content of glucose in the blood increases significantly, its increase is already determined by standard laboratory methods, sugar appears in the urine.
Excess glucose in the blood, lack of nutrition of the tissues leads to the fact that the synthesis of the necessary substances, including in the skin, is disturbed. The quality of hair, nails is deteriorating, the skin becomes dry - this is how early signs of diabetes can appear in women.
Since diabetes contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, the disease, which is based on atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease, hypertension), with diabetes begins much earlier than the average population. These diseases are also signs of diabetes in women over 40 years of age, since women usually do not get sick before menopause.
Men are more prone to atherosclerosis than women, but its manifestations usually begin after 40-45 years. An earlier onset of coronary artery disease, hypertension, especially in combination with obesity, may be a manifestation of diabetes in men.
With a deficiency of glucose in the tissues and brain (and it is the main fuel in the body), a person suffers a general breakdown, he accumulates fatigue, and drowsiness appears. Against the background of sharp jumps in the level of glucose, irritability, anger and tearfulness appear.Therefore, unmotivated fatigue and mood swings can also be manifestations of diabetes in men and women.
For the treatment of the disease at this stage requires strict adherence to a diet, taking drugs that stimulate the production of pancreatic insulin. To control the quality of treatment, glycated hemoglobin level detection is used (a special method that reflects the average glucose level over the last 3 months).
Manifestations of complicated diabetes in adults
At this stage, the indicator of glucose in the blood is steadily increased, glucose circulating in the blood in an excess amount, has a damaging effect on the vessels and nervous tissue. Therefore, in type 2 diabetes, various vascular complications develop, as well as damage to the brain and peripheral nerves.
Vessels are affected throughout the body, but the clinical manifestations of vascular lesions are especially important for the eyes - diabetic angiopathy of the retinal vessels develops, which can lead to loss of vision. Type 2 diabetes affects the blood vessels and tissues of the kidneys; this is manifested by progressive renal failure.
In women, myocardial infarction and stroke develops relatively rarely, usually after 60, their development are signs of diabetes in women 50 years and older.
If the vessels located in the pelvis are affected, the blood circulation in the organs of the pelvis is disturbed. For women, this is not very important, and in men, the function of the genitals can be significantly impaired. Erectile dysfunction is a common symptom of diabetes in men.
The manifestation of the defeat of the nerve endings - reduced sensitivity,as a result, patients do not notice scuffs in time, and a reduced ability to heal wounds can lead to purulent processes and even gangrene.
Pathology at the stage of insulin deficiency
The pancreas, forced to work in heavy-duty mode for more than one year, is sooner or later depleted. Cells that produce insulin, gradually die. As a result, insulin becomes low, and if before this diabetes compensation was achieved by taking pills, now there is a need for insulin maintenance.
At this stage, type 2 diabetes becomes insulin-dependent. First, small doses of the drug are required, then the function of the gland fades away completely, and it must be replaced. Insulin therapy is called substitution therapy.
Then nausea, vomiting, fluid loss increases.Joins a violation of consciousness. If the treatment is not urgently started, the patient falls into a coma and may die.
Knowing what signs suggest that diabetes is possible and started can take action in the early stages of the disease, and prevent the development of serious complications.