The real numbers of convicted criminals and anti-Soviets in the time of Comrade Stalin.
The results of the reign of Stalin speak for themselves. Until now, the capitalist countries of the post USSR exist at the expense of its heritage, eating and continuing to plunder the national wealth ...
Fiction writers and anti-Soviets compete who sovret stronger, calling the astronomical figures of the repressed and executed almost his own "bloody tyrant." Against their background, dissident Roy Medvedev, limited to the “modest” figure of 40 million, looks like a black sheep, an example of moderation and good faith:
"Thus, the total number of victims of Stalinism reaches, according to my calculations, figures of about 40 million people."
Tolya, his colleague in falsification and outright lies, the son of a repressed revolutionary Trotskyist A. V. Antonov-Ovseenko, without a hint of embarrassment, twice as big a number:
"These calculations are very, very approximate, but I am sure of one thing: the Stalinist regime bloodied the people by destroying more than 80 million of their best sons."
Professional “perestroika”, headed by a former member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU, A. N. Yakovlev, are already talking about 100 million:
“According to the most modest estimates of the specialists of the commission for rehabilitation, our country has lost about 100 million people during the years of Stalin’s rule. This number includes not only the repressed members themselves, but also members of their families that are doomed to death, and even children who could be born, but did not come into the world. ”
But the writer Igor Bunich without hesitation claims that all these"100 million people were ruthlessly exterminated."
However, this is not the limit. The absolute record was set by Boris Nemtsov, who announced on November 7, 2003 in the program “Freedom of Speech” on the NTV channelabout 150 million peopleallegedly lost by the Russian state after 1917.
These fantastically crazy numbers, readily replicated by Russian and foreign media, are designed for a blunt herd, which is increasingly becoming the inhabitants of post-Soviet territories.
For those who have forgotten how to think independently and are accustomed to uncritically take for granted any nonsense that pours from television screens.
It is easy to be convinced of the absurdity of the multimillion figures of “victims of repression”. It is enough to open any demographic reference book and, taking a calculator in hand, make simple calculations. For those who are too lazy to do this, I will give a small illustrative example.
According to a census conducted in January 1959, the population of the USSR was 208,827,000.
By the end of 1913, 159,153,000 people lived in the same borders. It is easy to calculate that the average annual increase in the population of our country in the period from 1914 to 1959 was 0.60%.
Now let's see how the population of England, France and Germany, countries that also took an active part in both world wars, grew in those same years.
So, the rate of population growth in Stalin’s USSR was almost one and a half times higher than in Western “democracies,” although for these states we excluded the extremely unfavorable demographic years of the 1st World War.Could this have happened if the “bloody Stalinist regime” had destroyed 150 million or at least 40 million inhabitants of our country? Of course no!
To find out the true number of executed criminals and anti-Soviet under Stalin, it is not necessary to engage in divination in the coffee grounds. It is enough to get acquainted with the declassified documents. The most famous of them is a memorandum addressed to N. S. Khrushchev dated February 1, 1954:
According to the document, from 1921 to early 1954, 642,980 people were sentenced to death on political charges, 2,369,220 to imprisonment, and 765,180 to exile.
However, there are more detailed data on the number of people convicted to the highest degree for counterrevolutionary and other especially dangerous state crimes.
Thus, for the years 1921-1953, 815,639 people were sentenced to death. In total, in the years 1918-1953, 4,308,487 people were prosecuted in cases of state security bodies, of whom 835,194 were convicted to the highest degree.
So, the “repressed” turned out to be somewhat more than indicated in the report of February 1, 1954. However, the difference is not too great - the numbers are of the same order.
In addition, it is quite possible that among those who received sentences under political articles, a fair amount of criminals were injected.
On one of the references stored in the archive, on the basis of which the above table is compiled, there is a pencil litter:
“Total convicted for 1921-1938. - 2 944 879 people, of which 30% (1062 thousand) are criminals ”.
In this case, the total number of “victims of repression” does not exceed three million.
It should also be borne in mind that not all sentences were carried out!
For example, of the 76 death sentences handed down by the Tyumen District Court in the first half of 1929, by January 1930, 46 were changed or abolished by higher authorities, and only 9 of the rest were executed.
From July 15, 1939 to April 20, 1940, 201 prisoners were sentenced to death for disorganizing camp life and production.
However, then parts of them the death penalty was replaced by imprisonment for periods ranging from 10 to 15 years.
In 1934, in the camps of the NKVD contained 3,849 prisoners sentenced to death with the replacement of imprisonment. In 1935 there were 5671 such prisoners, in 1936 - 7303, in 1937 - 6239, in 1938 - 5926, in 1939 - 3425, in 1940 - 4037 people.
How can you trust these numbers? All of them are taken from the internal reports of the NKVD — secret documents not intended for publication. In addition, these cumulative figures are quite consistent with the initial reports, they can be expanded monthly, as well as in individual camps.
We now calculate the number of prisoners per capita. As of January 1, 1941, as can be seen from the table above, the total number of prisoners in the USSR was 2,400,422 people. The exact population of the USSR is unknown at this moment, but is usually estimated at around 190–195 million.
Thus, we get from 1230 to 1260 prisoners for every 100 thousand people. On January 1, 1950, the number of prisoners in the USSR was 2,760,095 people - the maximum figure for all the time of Stalin's rule. The population of the USSR at that moment was 178 million 547 thousand. We get 1546 prisoners per 100 thousand population, 1.54%. This is the highest figure for all time.
We calculate the same indicator for the modern United States. Currently, there are two types of places of deprivation of liberty: jail is an approximate analogue of our temporary detention facilities, the jail contains people under investigation, and convicts serving short sentences serve their sentences, and prison — the prison itself. At the end of 1999, the prisons contained 1,366,721 people, in jails - 687,973 (seethe website of the Bureau of Legal Statistics of the United States Department of Justice), which adds up to 2,054,694. The population of the United States at the end of 1999 was approximately 275 million, therefore we get 747 prisoners per 100 thousand population.
Yes, half as much as Stalin’s, but not ten times less. It is somehow undignified for a power that has taken upon itself the defense of “human rights” on a global scale.
Moreover, this is a comparison of the peak number of prisoners in the Stalinist USSR, which, moreover, is caused first by the civil and then by the Great Patriotic War. And among the so-called "victims of political repression" there will be a fair share of supporters of the white movement, collaborators, Nazi collaborators, members of the ROA, policemen, not to mention ordinary criminals.
There are estimates that compare the average number of prisoners over a period of several years.
Data on the number of prisoners in the Stalinist USSR exactly coincide with the above given. In accordance with these data, it turns out that on average for the period from 1930 to 1940, per 100,000 people there were 583 prisoners, or 0.58%. Which is significantly less than that in Russia and the USA of the 90s.
What is the total number of prisoners under Stalin? Of course, if you take a table with an annual number of prisoners and sum up the lines, as many anti-Soviet officials do, the result will be wrong, since most of them were sentenced to more than a year. Therefore, it should be assessed by the amount of those not sitting, but by the amount of convicts, which was given above.
As we see, until 1942, the “repressed” were no more than one third of the prisoners held in the camps of the GULAG. And only then their share increased, having received a worthy “replenishment” in the person of Vlasovites, policemen, elders and other “fighters against communist tyranny”. Even less was the percentage of "political" in the correctional labor colonies.
Mortality of prisoners
Available archival documents allow us to clarify this issue.
In 1931, 7,283 people died in the ITL (3.03% of the average number of people), in 1932 - 13,197 (4.38%), in 1933 - 67,297 (15.94%), in 1934 - 26,295 prisoners (4.26%).
However, since 1944, mortality is significantly reduced. By the early 1950s, in the camps and colonies, it fell below 1%, and in prisons - below 0.5% per year. In particulars 1.27%.