Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

Family of patients with typhoid fever in the city Knyaginin. 1891-92 Photo by M. Dmitriev

Blogger writes

Today, as I promised yesterday, on the agenda is the question of the state of health care in the Russian Empire. The source of information is the same - “RUSSIA 1913 YEAR. STATISTICS - DOCUMENTARY DIRECTORY »

There will be a lot of my comments, sorry, the material is obliged to that. So read and enjoy.

From the “Explanatory Note to the State Control Report on the Execution of State Painting and Financial Estimates for 1911” (St. Petersburg, 1912. P. 194–200):

“The medical and sanitary business in the Empire is mainly concentrated in the Ministry of the Interior. This Ministry is responsible for general medical and sanitary supervision within the country and at the borders of its care for the prevention and suppression of epidemic diseases. He also owns the highest supervision over the activities of city and district administrations, who are entrusted with the care of medical assistance to the population and sanitary improvement in the localities, and the direct supervision of medical and sanitary affairs in localities,where zemstvo and city status was not enacted, as well as some medical and scientific institutions.

The organization of medical and sanitary supervision and measures for the protection of public health are carried out by the Ministry of Internal Affairs at the expense of the sums allocated to it from the state treasury, as well as at the expense of state funds and public charity funds in areas directly under its medical and sanitary management.

The cholera epidemic, which was weakened in 1909, became extremely acute during 1910, covering 78 provinces and regions. At the same time, an unexpected plague, initially in Odessa, and at the end of the year in Manchuria, received epidemic development and, having reached considerable strength within the Chinese domain, also spread in the East China railway line and in the Trans-Baikal region. The costs incurred by the treasury to combat the epidemics of cholera and plague in 1910 amounted to 1,482 thousand rubles.

By the end of 1910, the plague diseases in Odessa had ceased, and in early 1911, an epidemic of cholera and plague in the Far East subsided; although welater cholera resumed, but it was not widely developed, the plague diseases were limited to isolated cases in Odessa and some development of the epidemic in the Kyrgyz steppes of the Astrakhan province.

Works invested in the care of public health, do not remain without positive results. According to the available statistics, mortality from contagious diseases, not counting cholera and plague, which reached the 5th anniversary of 1901-1905. an average of 579 cases per year per 100 thousand population, decreased in 1906-1910 up to 529. Despite the observed in this way some improvement in the general state of people's health, Russia in this respect still remains behind most of the states of Western Europe. For example, in England, Germany, France, Sweden and Norway the number of deaths from infectious diseases in the years 1909-1910. did not exceed 100 cases per 100 thousand population per year.

For free use of rural inhabitants in the provinces and regions formed medical sites, which are administered by rural doctors; in each area there is a medical institution - a hospital or emergency room. The number of medical sites in the five years 1906-1910increased from 3268 to 3804, but only in a few provinces of European Russia mentioned areas in terms of their size and number of population accounted for them met the standards under which medical assistance to the population could be fully provided. Medical assistance by zemstvo institutions is best organized: in 18 provinces, the radius of the plots was on average less than 15 versts, and 10 - less than 20 versts; while in 19 provinces the number of people in the plots does not exceed 30 thousand people. The case is weaker in areas where Zemsky self-government has not been introduced: in most of these provinces, the size of the plots was determined with a radius of 25 versts or more, in some, it reached 100 versts and even exceeded this number.

Even less successful than the organization of the medical unit, it seems to work to improve the sanitary improvement of populated areas. Statistics show a particular susceptibility to infectious diseases of urban populations. The spread of contagious diseases, especially the widespread development in recent years of typhoid and cholera, indicates the poor sanitary conditions of urban life, depending mainly onfrom the unsatisfactory state of water supply and the removal of sewage, as well as from the unhygienic dwellings of low-income population.

According to the data collected in the reporting year on the situation of water supply and sewage disposal in cities and non-urban settlements, in which the number of residents exceeds 10 thousand people, public water lines are only in 190 out of 1078 settlements; Only with 58 of them, filters or other devices for purifying water are arranged. Meanwhile, for example, in Germany, in cities with a population of over 20 thousand people, water pipelines are arranged in 98 settlements out of 100, and from cities with a population of 5 to 20 thousand, there are water pipes in 74 points out of 100. We have a sewage drainage system only in 13 cities and settles in 3. In most of the remaining settlements, the removal of sewage is very unsatisfactory. At the same time, the existing devices in some cities are in an unsanitary condition. As a result of a survey of the cities of Kiev, Kharkov, Rostov-on-Don and St. Petersburg in 1907-1910. it turned out that one of the causes of the widespread epidemics of typhoid and cholera was water pollution by sewage. ”

(From myself - An interesting detail, if such a situation with a water supply system was in Kiev and St. Petersburg, then you can imagine what it was in other cities, where the water supply system was and where it never was).

And now, the most interesting begins - the passion of the face - TABLES WITH DATA! Go….!!! Do you know what the most "popular" were diseases, for example, in 1912? Not? Do not know? So I will enlighten you! (By the way, which of you is a doctor and owns modern statistics, can be compared with the current situation on diseases).

Table 2. Infectious diseases in Russia in 1912 (people)
Source: Statistical collection of Russia. 1914 Dep. III. Pp. 7-14.

On the 1st place Scabies (!) - 4.735.490 people, or 23.22% of the number of all sick. What to do, poor sanitation, damn! There is not enough water at all (in the desert everyone lived, probably!). And if you think that such a percentage was given mainly by the Central Asian possessions of the Russian Empire, then you are greatly mistaken. The main percentage of "scabs" is European Russia - 4.269.485 people. Not weak! Siberia gave a much more modest “result” - 173.089 people, but Central Asia disappointed - 84.998 people. (I do not cite data for Poland).

At the 2 nd place Malaria is 3.537.060 people, or 17.37% of the total number of people who are ill. The main percentage of "malaria" is European Russia - 2.168.606 people.It's not bad too! The hot Caucasus gave a record here - 1,028,263 people, Central Asia - 222,513 people, Siberia - 107,108 people.

On the 3rd place is the Influenza - 3.440.282 people, or 16.87% of the total number of the sick. We can say that with malaria they are close neighbors in terms of the number of people who are ill. And again, the main percentage is led by European Russia - 3,073,041 people, Siberia - 183,307 people, the Caucasus - 91,252 people, Central Asia - 55,612 people.

At 4th place, Diphtherite - in the numerical data of the total number of ill people there is an error, therefore I do not cite any other data, except for a percentage of the total number of people suffering from infectious diseases, a decent - 7.02%.

Now more interesting!

At 5th place ... who would you think? Syphilis (!) - 1,241,822 people, or 6.09% of the total number of people who are ill. “Syphilitics” most of all in European Russia - 1.069.100 people., Siberia - 62.887 people., The Caucasus - 47.186 people., Central Asia - 41.780 people.

Of the remaining diseases, the picture is as follows:

Smallpox - 81.588 people, (0.40%)
Scarlet fever - 350.256 people, (1.72%)
Measles - 419.807 people, (2.06%)
Whooping cough - 530.185 people, (2.60%)
Typhoid is different - 569.340 people, (2.79%)
Dysentery - 436.120 people, (2.14%)
Cholera - 5.109 people, (0.03%)
Epid gastroenteritis - 353.444 people, (1.73%)
Mouth woman - 252.136 people, (1.24%)
Erysipelas - 196.060 people, (0.96%)
Rheumatism acute. - 752.712 people, (3.69%)
Scurvy - 103.804 people, (0.51%)
Tuberculosis of the lungs - 835.450 people, (4.10%)
Soft chancre - 150.508 people, (0.74%)
Fracture - 491.403 people, (2.41%)
Trachoma - 969.213 people (4.75%)
Pneumonia lobar - 490.986 people, (2.41%)
Septicemia and pyemia - 22.974 people, (0.11%)

Total 20.397.603 people

Now you ask me, for example, but with more than 20 million people who are ill only with infectious diseases (!) For the Russian Empire, is it a lot or a little? According to statistics, not much - 11.6% throughout the empire. It is noteworthy here that the Caucasus is the most sick region - 14.58% of all patients in the region, followed by: European Russia - 13.59%, Siberia - 9.94%, Central Asia - 5.54%.

In this table there are no data for non-European Russia, as well as for Ukraine and Finland, which were also part of the Russian Empire, so the data are not complete and do not reflect the whole picture of the incidence of infectious diseases. In addition, the picture of the incidence of various types of diseases periodically changed depending on the outbreaks of epidemics, which, as shown in the Explanatory Note to the State Control Report on the execution of state painting and financial estimates for 1911, periodically flashed in various regions of the empire.

Now I want to stay at the level of the then medicine.

Table 1. The organization of medical care in Russia in 1912 (absolute data)
Source: Statistical Yearbook of Russia. 1914 Pg., 1914. Dep. III. Pp. 1-6.

The number of hospitals - 8.110
Bed capacity - 219.978

How do you think such a number of hospitals and hospital beds is enough for the population of the Russian Empire? In the meantime, you are thinking, I will provide data that will help you answer this question.

Contained patients (recall, we are talking about the year 1912) - 3,311,687 people.
Died in hospitals - 162.446 people.

219,978 beds in hospitals and 3,311,687 patients who were held in these hospitals for a year immediately catch the eye. It turns out that there were 15 people per bed per year! And this is with infectious diseases that are not treated in a day or two! And if you remember that in addition to contagious diseases, there are other diseases that also need to be treated in hospitals in a hospital, then there is a generally grim picture of a clinical nature!

This is still a detail for comparison. The number of koy in the homes of the insane is 41,404, and the number of patients who were there is 92,989 people. The situation, of course, is better than that of the "contagious" patients, but it is also not brilliant.

And finally, the most interesting!

Continuation of Table 1. Organization of medical care in Russia in 1912
(relative data)
Source: the same.

At 1 hospital in the Russian Empire accounted for an area of ​​2.327 square meters. versts (!)
For 10,000 of the population of the empire there were 12.6 beds (!)
The 10,000 population of the empire was hospitalized in 1912 - 189 people.
The percentage of deaths in hospitals is 4.8% (well, at least this is the only bright moment in the whole
health statistics)

AND NOW THE MOST TIN!

There were 1.3 doctors per 10,000 population (!)
For 10.000 population accounted for 1.7 felshirov (!)
There were 1.7 female midwives per 10,000 population (!)

p.s. In all of these statistics, the latest data is the most terrifying, and how government counting officers considered the number of midwives, sorry, I do not know.

And further. Of course, I did not disclose the whole topic on the state of health care in the Russian Empire. Yes, I did not set it as my goal. I just gave you a small fragment, according to which you can draw your own conclusions.

Related news

  • If the meter is faulty
  • Infant age: from 0 to 1 year: a selection of sites
  • Horoscope sostimosti partners born under the sign of the zodiac Snake
  • Folk remedies for mosquitoes
  • 10 dangerous products
  • Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH

    Russia, which they lost: HEALTH