What were the ancient Roman trireme and were they at all? How are changing historical views.
In the children's book “The Book of the Future Admiral” read the following: “The main ship of the Roman fleet remained the so-called Trireme. Then came the quadrima, “four-story” and the pentera, “five-story.”
And I remembered the new article, which understood this construction. In general, everything becomes clear if we take a drawing (and not a beautiful drawing in isometric) of a real galley and build on two floors. With each floor the length of the paddle grows and on the third there will be at least 25 meters. In order not to break the oar, its diameter must also increase to about half a meter in the thickest part. If you make it out of light pine, then it will weigh 300 kg. How long and how fast can you roll such a paddle?
Farther. Rowers must act synchronously. Oars on all floors are different. But how can they row with the same frequency with oars of different lengths and weights? And if a pair of oars are missed, how many oars will remain, and how many will break?
Galleys were used until the end of the 18th century.Swedish, Russian, Turkish. There are drawings, drawings, some raised from the bottom. And for some reason, with one row of oars. In the late fifties and early sixties, many films from ancient history were filmed in Hollywood (Spartak, Cleopatra, etc.) and ordered a trireme for filming. Professional engineers of the 20th century, this task was beyond the forces.
The solution is not particularly difficult. In ancient Greek texts there are the words Birema, Trireme. But there are no illustrations, there is no explanatory dictionary. However, the land historian in his office is not lost and immediately comes up with the meanings of these words, double-decked, three-decked. And he never saw real oars and, in fact, does not want to see.
Here is a photo of the model of a trireme, which it seemed to everyone before the 1980s, corresponds to my first drawing.
This is my retelling from memory of the chapter from the book of the former military sailor GD Kostylev “Military-Historical Chochmas”. There are no less interesting chapters about catapults, rams, Greek fire and other historical "facts" that are not treated the way we are used to. And all is proved not by secret documents and analyzes, but only by logic and simple mathematics. I advise everyone.
And having written it, I still rummaged on the Internet. And found this photo.
It turned out that in 1987, a fully restored Greek warship, Trireme, was launched near the ancient Athenian port of Piraeus. When testing a new ship in the open sea, a team of 170 rowers of various nationalities with different physical training, developed on Olimpia, (so they called this ship) a truly sprint speed of 7 knots (13 km / h). The length of the ship is 36.8, width - 5.4 and height (from the keel to the awning deck) - 3.6 m. Full displacement - 45 tons. The turning radius of the ship at full speed turned out to be 1.25 its hull length, or about 46 m.
Why did the judgments of a professional sailor come into such striking contradiction with reality? G. Kostylev did not take into account some features of the human psyche. If you want to solve a problem, you can find a solution, if you think that there is no solution, you will definitely find evidence of this. Robert A. Wilson in “The Psychology of Evolution” discusses this feature of the psyche in terms of Thinking and Proving. “Whatever the Thinker Inventing, Proving it to prove”! Essentially, G.Kostylev made the most difficult part in analyzing the problem of the trireme - he pointed out technical contradictions that do not allow to realize the idea of the trireme. And as stated in the theory of invention TRIZe - this is the main stage in inventive activity.
Indeed, it is impossible to row with heavy oars of different lengths. The idea of the solution - the radii of the circle are equal. See how this idea is implemented constructively.
According to Kostylev, the trireme should be too big and heavy. But the trireme is built without the traditional framework, it has what can be called a bearing skin. And the trireme turned out to be roomy, compact and light. Compare with the caravel design.
Well, the general conclusion - to convincingly prove, unfortunately, anything can be. But not the fact that it will be true.