"Khrushchev" and "Khrushchev"
One of the most popular slogans among the people, with which the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917, was this - “Peace to the huts, war to the palaces!”. Palaces and in truth, conquered quickly. Having become the boss overnight, the revolutionary leadership confiscated the most well-appointed buildings from the bourgeoisie and housed their institutions and housing there. Thus, for many years, the principle was established in the country, according to which the authorities were the first to enter communism ...
Mother-in-law in the washstand
All the rest of communism got, if not a donut hole, then only the first two syllables: COMMUNAL. In Moscow, this type of hostel was established in 1918–1926. It was then that a prominent representative of the Leninist party guard, the chairman of the Moscow City Council, Lev Kamenev, with a firm hand held the municipalization of the capital’s housing stock. There was a great relocation of the inhabitants of the suburbs, residents of factory barracks and basements in the city center.
Housing seized by sealing the former gentlemen and bourgeois. Not only the aspiring aristocrats, breeders, businessmen and bankers, but also scientists, engineers, teachers, doctors, and creative workers were attributed to such in one fell swoop. In short, almost all the intelligentsia.In Petrograd, for example, in the spring of 1918, every adult “bourgeois” was left with one room plus one for all children. The remaining area was intended for the settlement of the proletarians.
In the summer of the same year, after the appearance of the All-Russian Decree “On the Abolition of the Rights of Private Ownership of Immovable Property”, the commission on consolidation was earned. It is such a commission, headed by Comrade Shvonder, as we recall, who was to condense Professor Preobrazhensky into the famous Bulgakov's story “The Heart of a Dog”.
From the vigorous activity of the Schwonders, the general apartment happiness for the proletariat did not come. Divided by all conveniences caused inconvenience. In the 1920s, a chapel of the youth team “Blue Blouse” was popular:
All in Moscow are so sealed
As in the coffins of the dead.
My wife and I went to the dresser,
Mother-in-law in the washstand.
The fact that it wasn’t a pop show, but a song for many years, was testified by statistics. So, according to the census of 1926, for each metropolitan accounted for only 5.8 square meters. meters of living space. But it is on average. After deduction of the successful metric area of the party-state nomenclature, this rule looked even shorter.Worst of all things with housing were just the proletariat.
According to the same census, only 21.5 percent of working families had an approximate average statistical rate of 4.7 square meters. meter per soul. The bulk of the roped between 2 and 3 square meters. meters, that is, there was only a bed. There were those who dropped out less than 1 square. meter per soul.
Of course, they didn’t sleep standing like horses. But many of our grandparents can easily recall how, in distant socialist childhood, they spent the night on old chests, or even on the floor, along with adults.
The saddest thing is that this situation not only persisted for years, but even worsened in certain periods. For example, according to the following census, 1928–1929, the former average for the capital (5.8 square meters of living space per person) moved down to 5.5.
My dear skyscrapers
Solve the problem could only mass housing. But the leaders engaged in the industrialization, the collectivization, the other mobilization activities, it was not enough time. As a result of the merciless transfer of resources from agriculture to industry, the country was able to produce the world's best tanks and the heaviest tractor in the world.In a multi-year battle for the harvest, these fuel-hungry monsters could do little to help.
The barbarically bloodless village provided the country with only one indicator year after year - the food shortage. The chronic housing crisis in the cities became aggravated because the peasantry turned into citizens with a city registration, collectivization pushed out of the native fields in the 1920s and 30s and recruited into numerous socialist construction sites. Recent farmers got a miserable place under the city sun - tight corners in dilapidated rental housing, crowded hostels and harsh working barracks.
The shortage of “beds” was aggravated by the destructive war and brought to a critical level in the early 1950s by a new wave of villagers who ran to the cities from the exhaustingly hungry collective-farm life.
Stalin did not measure his sovereign steps with such nonsense as bed-meters. And if he blessed any civilian construction, then in such a way as to hit the whole world. In the late 1940s, the leader sanctioned the construction of seven high-rises in the capital. The most powerful administrative high-rise in Zaryadie, designed to replace the unreleased administrative colossus of the Palace of Soviets, was abandoned after the death of Stalin.
Ten years later, at its basement, which sheltered a government bomb shelter, the construction of the Russia Hotel began — the same one that is being demolished today.
Even with the gratuitous labor of prisoners, this entire construction cost 2 billion 631 million 200 thousand rubles. In order not to be hampered by the transfer to modern Russian rubles or dollars, we note: approximately in these years, approximately the same amount was allocated to restore all of Stalingrad. The one in which, even five years after the great Victory, more than 1,800 families still huddled in basements and dugouts ...
And all the same - housing in the Stalinist skyscrapers was not enough. Even the most respected people lacked it, although Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria personally undertook the distribution.
"Khrushchev" and "Khrushchev"
Having come to power after the death of the Generalissimo, Khrushchev decided to end some ugliness. Now it is fashionable to assume that he did all this because of personal offense: he allegedly could not forget how during the “bachelor parties” in the Middle Dacha the owner forced him to dance gopak and seated him on a chair with a sneaky planted tomato.
Yet in nature, Khrushchev had a trait that many others (with the possible exception of Anastas Mikoyan) members of the Stalinist Politburo had lost. He contrived to preserve humanity.And therefore, becoming the first person of a huge state, he clutched his head and tried to do something for ordinary citizens, many of whom were dying in camps, but even those who were at liberty lived in conditions that were not very similar to humans.
The 1955 decree "On the elimination of excesses in design and construction" was truly historic. It set the course for the construction of mass housing. The first secretary had the idea to assemble houses from parts, like a car in a factory. Not in his head, of course, was born. Khrushchev saw massive buildings from panel five-story buildings in the West — in particular, in the occupied outskirts of Paris and other French cities.
The decisive replacement of the long individual design with the lightning-fast type was, of course, a giant step forward. In essence, Khrushchev was the first to take on the task that the Communists could not accomplish since 1917. On the initiative of Khrushchev in Moscow created the largest construction trust, which brought together hundreds of departmental construction departments and sites. In the year instead of 400 thousand square meters of living space in Moscow began to build 5 million.
Citizens began to get out of the basements, barracks, wreck and overpopulated communal.Now they were waiting for the panel five-story building with small, but still separate apartments. In the lives of many millions it was the first tolerable housing. And with a sense of sincere affection, they called these houses "Khrushchev".
They turned into “Khrushchev” later, after twenty-five years, when it was finally clear to their inhabitants that standing for these houses - and, therefore, for them to live in them - was not 30 years old, as was supposed by the project, but until the end of the century. It became clear that low ceilings, tiny front, cramped kitchens - in a word, everything that was easily forgiven once during a housewarming party - for a long time, if not forever.
In addition, what were the "rules"? Russians of the older generation will surely remember the so-called "three square meters." If the apartment per person accounted for more than this almost cemetery rate, the family was not placed in the queue for housing. And if it was less? It also did not always help.
I will never forget the expression on the faces of my cousin and his wife when, after the birth of their third child, they were refused to be put on the line, accusing them of “self-sealing”. But even once in this most desirable line, you could spend your whole life in it. In the late 1980s, the number of "standing" was estimated in the millions.In the hero-city of Novorossiysk, for example, the list for housing was then headed for the waiting list of 1948.
Survived the empire
Today, many believe that Khrushchev’s obsession with panel five-storey buildings was the result of his wretched taste. By no means! For his fierce struggle with architectural excesses, behind the combined bathrooms and flattened boxes without attics and elevators were serious calculations.
Khrushchev sincerely wished the well-being of the Soviet man. But he also wanted the unprecedented success of the USSR on earth, underground and in space. Here are just funds for all these ambitions sorely lacked.
The country could not feed itself. Khrushchev himself considered it reparable. It was necessary only to get rid of the excesses of the Stalinist cult, “chemize” everything, plant with corn, gain time by exchanging half of the country's gold reserves for food from the world bourgeoisie. And then the socialist model will work!
When moving in, the five-storey Khrushchev-like houses seemed almost paradise. In the 1990s, many have already developed their resources and scrapped
The idea that the model had a “congenital heart disease” was driven not only by Khrushchev.In fact, all his mates were driving the disease inside and softening it with either petrodollars or devastating borrowings from the gold reserves.
As a result, at the beginning of 1980, an expert note was laid on the table of the top management that, since the mid-1970s, about half of the increase in commodity turnover in the country was achieved due to deterioration in quality and price increases. A report of the State Planning Committee on this matter was distributed to the Vice-Chairmen of the Council of Ministers. But the very next day, the copies were seized and destroyed.
But the terrible state secret, which the country's top leadership was so secret from itself, was openly discussed in almost every Soviet kitchen. The emergence of this territory of free thought was also a grand consequence of the appearance of “Khrushchev”, albeit unprogrammed.
With the destruction of communal crowding, in which any sex, any free exchange of opinions was difficult, the power began to lose total control over the personal life of citizens.
Khrushchev pyatietazhki survived the Soviet empire. And it looks like they will outlive another generation of their guests. For ten years have passed since March 1996, when, together with the demolition of the first house on Kastanaevskaya street, Moscow began to say goodbye to the "hruschob".However, those of them that were away from prestigious places, from developers sweeping away everything in their path, will soon begin a third life. After all, two to thirty times they have almost lived.
The very first in the USSR "Khrushchev"
Panel housing construction in the USSR began in 1958 in Moscow, on Julian Grimau Street. And the very first "Khrushchev" stands there still.
This technology was used to build this house - in a short time from ready-made blocks,
manufactured and prepared for installation at a house-building factory.
On average, it took about 12 days to build one house on site.
There were also “Stakhanovites”: one Leningrad brigade set a record of 5 days.
Newspapers happily reported on the quality of housing, however, modestly silent.
But after all this house costs, and still stands!
Yes, and it was up to the quality, when every second Soviet citizen simply dreamed of moving to a separate apartment from harsh communal life or barrack conditions. Needless to say, their personal "comfort" and hot water, even in a tiny closet, for many became the pinnacle of happiness.
This is how this house and the space in front of it looked in 1960.
Much to our surprise, the long exemplary demonstration of the area apparently helped keep the fountain in the courtyard. As the first district of “Khrushchev’s” Moscow, the outskirts of the metro station Akademicheskaya still preserved the “Stalinist” layout with large courtyards between buildings and even a fountain, which today look like this.
Yes, I forgot to say: this area of Moscow is called Cheryomushki.
American view of the building of Moscow Khrushchev
Very interesting photos of 1963 about how in those years in Moscow began the massive construction of housing. All these pictures were taken by an American photographer who captured the whole process of building "Khrushchev".
Khrushchev and hruscheob
Khrushchev and hruscheob
Khrushchev and hruscheob
Khrushchev and hruscheob
Khrushchev and hruscheob