How to help the patient with food poisoning?
Classification of poisoning and the mechanism of their impact
Under this term is meant a violation of the vital activity of the organism, which develops as a result of the ingestion of various poisons and toxins into the body.
Invasion of hazardous substances can be natural or the result of someone else's malice. This is important for doctors, because the type of active ingredient depends on urgent medical care provided to eliminate it.
The classification of poisoning is quite extensive.
So, depending on the active substance, the following types of intoxication are distinguished:
Food poisoning: mushrooms, meat, fish, sour milk, etc.
Symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, loose stools, fever and weakness.
Defeats carbon monoxide or lamp gas.
Symptoms: serous tinge of the dermis, impairment of consciousness, loss of balance, migraines, visual acuity, hallucinations, fainting, nausea and vomiting, coma, etc.As you can see, the symptoms are not very characteristic, so it is important to pay attention to the conditions for obtaining poisoning. This may include household appliances (stove, column, gas boiler), the presence of fires, etc.
The result of exposure to pesticides.
Symptoms of poisoning with toxic substances may be different. Usually they include such phenomena: breathing is frequent and intermittent, there is tachycardia, impaired consciousness (nervousness, hallucinations, lethargy, etc.), nausea and vomiting, sweating, rashes, asthmatic seizures, lesions of the throat, etc. These symptoms are more common found in villagers who process the next harvest with pesticides.
Defeat acid or alkali.
Burned mucous in the region of the larynx and mouth, severe pain, thirst, asthma, vomiting and feces have a bloody color. If you notice these symptoms - urgently call an ambulance, because the death may occur at any second. Usually, the causes of such poisoning are suicide attempts at which household chemicals are drunk (abrasives for washing dishes or cleaning work). But sometimes these substances enter the esophagus by mistake or are tried by children when stored in easily accessible places.
Poisoning with drugs, alcohol, mushrooms.
Symptoms: nausea and vomiting, confusion, sharp pain in the abdomen, the appearance of blood impurities in the stool and vomit, involuntary emptying. Similar symptoms in the poisoning of mushrooms, fish.
At the same time, the signs of poisoning may differ, it all depends on the type of active agent that provoked intoxication.
Poisoning is also divided along the path of penetration of stimuli. After all, the mechanism of action of toxins and the spectrum of affected organs and systems depends on this.
Injectable, oral, inhalation and percutaneous (tactile) routes of penetration are distinguished. Other, more rare, methods of toxin ingestion are also found.
There are also 4 severity of poisoning:
The patient is conscious, signs are mild.
Symptomatology is pronounced, there are pronounced signs of intoxication, which do not bear danger to the patient's life.
The patient’s consciousness is confused, he is tormented by copious symptoms and there is a threat to his life.
The patient is unconscious, signs of poisoning are extremely severe, there is a development of complications and disturbances in the work of the internal organs. Such a course of intoxication often ends lethal.
The following types of lesions are also distinguished, depending on the intensity and nature of the effects of toxins on the body:
You understand that the range of manipulations, which will include qualified medical assistance, directly depends on the type of lesion and on the substance that provoked it.
First Aid Features
As soon as the first symptoms of intoxication appeared, an ambulance should be called. While doctors are on the way, you can take a set of measures.
The first aid itself depends on the symptoms that struck the patient:
When poison is applied to the dermis, it is important to promptly remove the source of toxin from the skin.
First, remove the toxic substance with a cotton swab and only then wash the skin with plenty of warm water, preferably running water. Also providing first aid involves adding a little soap solution or soda to the water.This supplement is appropriate if the effects of alkalis are excluded.
First aid for food poisoning.
First of all, it is important to identify the source of intoxication. It is possible poisoning with mushrooms, fish, meat and other food. It is necessary to put the patient on his side and carry out gastric lavage. Note that if the patient is in a sitting position, the poisons will only enter the intestines rather than come out. Such errors are fraught with aggravation of symptoms, which is especially dangerous when poisoning with mushrooms or fish. After washing it is important to give the affected sorbent (Enterosgel, activated carbon, etc.). Now we have to wait for the ambulance. After all, in case of poisoning with mushrooms and other food products, intravenous administration of saline is required for the speedy removal of active agents from the body. If the patient has suffered from fungi, then washing is better to repeat several times.
First aid for gas poisoning.
First of all, it is important to bring the patient to the open air. Open the sore gate and remove the squeezing elements of clothing. If a person has suffered from carbon monoxide, you should drink it with strong tea and apply a wet compress on his chest.If the patient is unconscious, it is worth checking his vital functions: the presence of a heartbeat and chest movements characteristic of inhalation and exhalation. If necessary, an indirect heart massage and artificial respiration should be performed. In case of poisoning with other gases, it is worthwhile to allow the patient to rinse the throat with a solution of baking soda (the concentration should be low!). Then wrap up the victim and wait for the ambulance to arrive.
First aid for alcohol poisoning.
First of all, it is important to bring the patient to consciousness, for this it is worthwhile to give him to inhale vapors of ammonia (lubricate the forehead and temples with a cotton swab). Then you should carry out a gastric lavage, proceed by analogy with the poisoning by mushrooms and other food. Also, first aid for alcohol poisoning may include emergency measures: indirect heart massage and artificial respiration.
- If breathing is depressed if poisoning occurs, analeptics and gangliostimulants should be given to the patient.
In case of intoxication due to exposure to acids, it is necessary to force the patient to drink milk, a raw egg or vegetable oil.
Do not use soda in any case!
If the lesion is triggered by caustic alkali, it should be limited to washing the stomach.
In no case should not give the victim a laxative!
The main thing you can do in case of poisoning is to call an ambulance. Prior to her arrival, provide comfort for the affected person and take steps to clean the body.
Knowing these simple rules, you can save someone's life.